Coffee is a tree in the genus Coffea of the family Rubiaceae and a drink made by mixing the powder obtained by roasting and grinding the fruit seeds of this tree with water or milk.



The Arabic equivalent of the Kaffa region of Abyssinia, where the coffee tree was first found, is “qahwah”. While the Arabs did not yet define the coffee known today, the word used it in the sense of a pleasant drink, wine. Its meaning today is 14. century. This has turned into “coffee” in Turkish, and from there it has come to the form of café, caffe, koffie, coffee, koffie, Kaffee in Europe.


Coffee tree

It is a type of tree whose flowers are white and fragrant, with two seeds in its cherry-like red fruit, which begins to bear fruit about 3 years after planting and bears fruit continuously for 30-40 years. The tree, which grows up to 8-10 meters when left to its natural state, is kept in the size of a shrub 4-5 meters long by constantly pruning for easy collection of fruits. Coffee has dark, bright and pointed leaves that do not fall out in winter, leathery similar to bay leaves and wavy edges. It grows in the belt between 25 North and 30 South of the equator, which receives abundant rainfall, where the average temperature is between 18-24° C and frost is not observed. In the cold, the tree dies, in addition, sudden temperature changes damage the tree. Since it loves the humid environment, the coffee tree needs to be grown in the tropics, where there is regular rainfall. Although there are many species that grow in nature, only coffea arabica and coffea robusta are cultivated.


Coffee blossom and fruit

After abundant rainfall, the coffee tree blooms gorgeous white flowers two or three times a year. Their strong and pungent scent sometimes resembles jasmine and sometimes the blossom of an orange tree. A tree that has just begun to give flowers carries a total of 20-30 thousand flowers in a year on its branches.

A few hours after the coffee flowers bloom, they begin to wither and slowly prepare to become fruits.

Coffee fruit and beans [değiştir]


Roasted coffee beans

Coffee blossom is white in color and smells like jasmine. Coffee fruit; it is also called “coffee cherry” due to similarities in size, shape and color. Inside are two thin cores. The side of the cores facing each other is flat, the outer side is round. Inside each bean there is a seed (coffee grain) of the same shape. On the flat surface of the grain there is a deep line, the inside of which is filled with a hard fattening tissue, the outer layer of the fattening tissue is covered with a thin membrane. Outside the membrane there is a harder shell. If the coffee bean is to be used as a seed later, the kernel will not be separated from the shell.

Some coffee trees have one seed instead of two. This peaberry has a much more rounded shape than the others. The cores, which come out as a single, are separated from the others and passed through the production process. Usually their price is also much more expensive than regular coffee.

Coffee berries need to be inspected very regularly, because they begin to rot within 14 days after ripening.


Coffea Arabica

Coffea Arabica, derived from the first coffee plant discovered in Ethiopia, grows mainly on mountainous plateaus or volcanic slopes with a height between 800-2000 meters. It blooms after each rainy period, and its fruits need about 9 months to ripen. A typical arabica tree bears about 5 kg of fruit in a year, and 1 kg of coffee beans is obtained from these fruits.

Coffee made from oval Arabica beans of greenish-yellow color contains less caffeine than Robusta. It also has a more delicious and sweet aroma.

Arabica coffee accounts for 70% of the world’s coffee production. But it is more difficult to grow and more expensive, since it is not very resistant to diseases and climatic conditions.

The most well-known varieties are; It is “Bourbon” grown in Brazil, Middle-East Africa, India, Indonesia and “Typica” grown in Latin America. They are followed by Tico, Blue Mountain, Mundo Novo, Caturra and San Ramon.

The acidity of Arabica species is less than Robusta and it is aromatic. That is why this type is most preferred for taste. In our country, only trial plantings in Mersin and Anamur gave good results. Currently, coffee cultivation is carried out on an area of 850 hectares.

Coffea Canephora (Robusta) [değiştir]

Coffea robusta grows from 0 to 600 meters. Unlike Arabica, it blooms sporadically and requires about 10-11 months for its fruits to ripen.

Coffee made from round Robusta beans in a yellowish-brown brown contains about twice as much caffeine as Arabica.

Robusta coffee accounts for about 30% of the world’s coffee production. It is much easier and cheaper to grow, as it is very resistant to diseases and climatic conditions.

The most well-known varieties are; Java-Ineac, Nana, Kouliou and Congensis.


Coffee has attention-enhancing and stimulating properties due to the stimulating nature of the caffeine substance it contains. It increases the effect of painkillers by 40%.



In the high plateaus of Ethiopia, the homeland of coffee, and in the regions where the wild coffee plant grows naturally, the indigenous people turned the grains of this plant into flour and made a kind of bread. After the fruits were boiled, the juice was used for medicinal purposes by drinking and was called the “magic fruit”. Coffee, along with its fame, quickly spread to the Arabian Peninsula and continued to be drunk for 300 years with the method discovered in Abyssinia. 14. In the twentieth century, the coffee beans roasted on the fire with a brand new discovery were boiled and offered to me after being crushed. It was the Sufi sect in Yemen that first began to process and drink coffee. From here it was seen in Aden in the 1470s, in Cairo in 1510, and in Mecca in 1511.

During the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim (1517), the Governor of Yemen, Özdemir Pasha, brought the coffee he drank in Yemen and loved very much to Istanbul.

Coffee soon took its place in the palace kitchen as a respectable drink and attracted great attention. A rank called “kahvecibaşı” was added to the palace duties. The head of the coffee shop who was in charge of cooking the coffee of the sultan or the elder of the state to which he belonged was chosen from among those who were loyal and knew how to keep secrets. In Ottoman history, there were even those who rose from coffee shop to grand vizier.

Coffee, which entered the houses from the palace to the mansions, became a flavor that the people of Istanbul were passionate about in a short time. The purchased raw coffee beans were roasted in pans, beaten in the bottoms, and then cooked in coffee pots.

In 1544, two Syrian Arabs opened the first coffee house in Tahtakale in Istanbul.

Venetian merchants who came to Istanbul carried this drink they loved very much to Venice. Thus, Europeans were first introduced to coffee in 1615. Coffee, which was first sold on the streets by lemonade sellers, took its place in Italy’s first coffeehouse, which opened in 1645. These coffee houses, whose numbers increased rapidly in a short time; As in many other countries, it has become the most popular places where artists, students and people from all walks of life come together and chat. Coffee reached Paris in 1643 and London in 1651.

Europeans established coffee plantations in various parts of the world. Coffee cultivation began in Java, Indonesia in 1712. The Netherlands grew coffee in Java and the East Indies, France in the Antilles.


It is the product that constitutes the largest trade area after oil in the world.[kaynak belirtilmeli]

Trade in Turkey

For the first time, coffee was imported from Brazil in 1727. The oldest coffee shop in Turkey is Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi, founded in 1871. Studies on coffee cultivation in Anatolia have been carried out, but they have not been successful. During the 2nd World War, it was included in the scope of Tekel. In the 1980s, Nestle launched Nescafe. Since 2004, coffee cultivation has been carried out on an area of 16 hectares only in Mersin and Anamur in Turkey.[kaynak belirtilmeli]

Coffee Varieties Famous for Their Regions


Although coffee farming is also made from the same type of coffee, they may vary according to the soil, climate structure of the region where they are grown and the processing methods coming from the traditions in that region. Commonly known local coffees are as follows:

Ethiopian Yirgacheff – Ethiopian coffee with a winey bittersweet taste.

Ethiopia Sidamo – Ethiopian coffee with intense exotic fruits and citrus flavors.

Santos – is the name of a port in Brazil, where coffee does not grow.

Rio Minas – An economical Brazilian coffee that is often used for Turkish coffee, usually in Turkey and in the Balkans.

Sumatran – Indonesian coffee with a low acid balance. It is famous for its sooty smell and earthy caramelian tastes.

Supremo – the name given to the category of the highest quality coffee in Colombia.

Excelso – coffee beans with smaller sizes than Supremo in Colombia. The filter is often used in coffee blends. It has sugary flavors.

Antigua – A quality coffee grown in the Antigua plain of Guatemala that stands out with its chocolatey and spicy flavors.

Tarrazu – Costa Rica produces the world’s most prestigious and balanced coffees. This coffee, which contains hazelnuts, chocolate-like flavors and is grown and processed on farms called cups, is known by the name Tarrazu.

AA – Especially in Kenya, coffee harvests are collected together and sorted according to their size. The nucleus with the largest dimensions is given the title AA.


Coffee Preparation and Presentation Types


Turkish Coffee – The only type of coffee served with grounds

Turkish coffee is the name of the method of coffee preparation and cooking discovered by the Turks. It has a unique identity and tradition with its special taste, foam, smell, cooking and treating. It is the only type of coffee served with grounds.

The origin of coffee has been noted by researchers as spreading from Southern Abyssinia to the whole world in the early 14th century. The source of this is shown in the Kaffa region in Southern Abyssinia, which is closely similar to coffee in terms of origin. [1]

The drink, which was first obtained by boiling coffee fruit in the Arabian Peninsula, has gained the real coffee flavor and unique taste with this brand new preparation and cooking method. Europe, which met coffee thanks to the Turks; For many years, coffee has been prepared and consumed as Turkish coffee with this method.

Turkish Coffee, which originates from Brazil and Central America, is blended from arabica type, high-quality coffee beans and roasted meticulously and meticulously, preferably over a coal fire, is ground very finely. It is cooked with the help of a coffee pot by adding water and sugar according to request, two teaspoons of coffee are thrown into a cup of coffee. Serve with small cups. It is waited for a short time for the wire to sink to the bottom before drinking. The water is not at the end of the coffee, as is supposed; it is drunk before drinking coffee. It is also the most consumed type of coffee with espresso in the world, which is one of the 2 coffees on the menu of almost every type of restaurant in the world.


Turkish coffee served with copper coffee pot Turkish delight and a glass of water used in the production of Turkish coffee In 1517, Yemen Governor Özdemir Pasha brought the coffee, the taste of which he admired, to Istanbul. Thanks to the brand new preparation method invented by the Turks, the coffee was cooked in the stump and coffee pots and took the name of Turkish Coffee. Thanks to the coffeehouses that were first opened in Tahtakale and spread rapidly to the whole city, the people met with coffee. Coffeehouses and coffee culture, where books and beautiful articles were read at all hours of the day, chess and backgammon were played, poetry and literature conversations were held, left their mark on the social life of the period.

Coffee, which took its place in the palace kitchen and houses, began to be consumed in large quantities. Raw coffee beans were roasted in pans, then beaten in the bottoms, cooked in coffee pots and drunk, and served with great care to the most respectable friends. In a short time, thanks to the merchants and travelers who came to Istanbul and the Ottoman ambassadors, the taste and fame of Turkish Coffee first covered Europe and then the whole world.


Mırra – Bitter coffee unique to Şanlıurfa, prepared by brewing several times.

Mırra, a bitter coffee unique to the entire Arab geography, prepared by brewing several times. Its name is derived from murdan, which means pain in Arabic. It is drunk in a small glass because it is very bitter and dark. In Turkey, Şanlıurfa is a drink that is culturally meaningful in regions where Arab culture is dominant such as Mardin and whose presentation requires special effort.


There is no special coffee bean for myrrh. The coffee beans are roasted and taken to a mortar-like container called dibek and the grains are pounded without getting too thin. Grinders and coffee machines are also used today for the forging process.

The most important part in the preparation of the purr is the boiling phase. The boiling time is very long compared to the known methods, at certain stages the grounds of the coffee are separated and continued after adding water to the mixture. The ground coffee is boiled by adding water to it, and after reaching a certain consistency, it is filtered into a special container called mutbak to separate it from the sediment. Coffee and water are added again to the resulting mixture. The coffee, which is filtered one or two more times, coffee and water are added, and after separating from the sediment, it is passed through the coffee one or two more times by adding only water without adding coffee.

Cardamom can be added to the mixture to give flavor to the purr. Since it is drunk without sugar, it is not sweetened when it is prepared.



The purr, which has a molasses-like consistency enough to paint the edge of the coffee cup, is transferred to a copper, embroidered retort or coffee pot for serving.

Myrrh is traditionally served with a single small cup without a handle. In the service, a queue is followed from older to younger in terms of age.

The person serving the coffee fills the guest with a drink of purr for about half of the cup. After the guest drinks the coffee, the same amount of coffee is replenished. The guest who drinks the second one gives the cup back to the person who served it. The person serving the coffee wipes the cup after each serving and treats the next guest with the same cup.


Like myrrh

Traditionally prepared by myrrh masters, murra is a laborious drink and today it is served by adding very little water to strong coffees. This type of coffee is not a myrrh, but only a strong, dense coffee.

The similarity of purr with espresso is known. However, they have similarities only in terms of strong taste, their preparation is different. The double-shot method used to prepare strong espresso (doubling the amount of coffee per cup) is different from the method of preparing purr. Double shot only increases the amount of coffee, while purr is prepared both with a large amount of coffee and by brewing more than once.


Espresso – A type of coffee prepared by machine, dark roasted, native to Italy.

Espresso is a type of coffee native to Italy that is prepared by discharging pressurized 30 ml of hot water (90-96 degrees) into the cup for about 20 seconds, although not as thin as dark roasted, Turkish Coffee, but finely ground enough (about 15 seconds in the coffee grinder) and compressed in the coffee chamber of the Espresso machine (about 7 g for a single measure).

The espresso machine has the following sections.

Water tank, Water heater, Pump, Coffee tank and (Steam valve and steam lever used for foaming milk in machines that can make Cappucino)


Fresh and room-temperature drinking water is put into the water tank. Quality bottled water should be preferred. The machine is turned on and the metal coffee pot is expected to warm up well (hand burn). The reservoir can also be heated by washing it with boiling water or by running it several times in vain without putting coffee and passing hot water through it. Espresso cups, which are the size of Turkish coffee cups but thicker edges, should also be heated with a steam blower or by soaking hot water in them, this is because in espresso coffee culture, coffee is at a temperature between 90 and 96 degrees; hand is that the fuel and coffee are at a temperature at room temperature where they can maintain their temperature for a few minutes. After the bowl and cup are heated, a scale (up to 7 gr.) of coffee is filled into the metal bowl and slightly compressed (some machines have special compressors for compressing coffee) are attached to the machine. In this way, it is ensured that the journey of the water in the coffee until the filling stage to the cup takes longer and the coffee can take its aroma completely. Then the pump is started by pressing the button of the machine and pressurized (about 10 bar) hot water passes through the coffee pot and begins to fill the cup. If the coffee is not pulled thin enough, the water flows too quickly, and it cannot fully take on the taste and color of the coffee. In the case of coffee that is ground too thinly, the water does not flow or flows very slowly, which causes the cup to fill the cup with bitter oils that should normally remain in the filter chamber. For these reasons, it is very important to use coffee in the espresso machine, ground in the most appropriate thickness. The color and flow of the coffee flowing from the coffee bowl to the cup should be monitored. During the filling of the cup, the dense and dark colored coffee gradually turns into sparkling coffee with a color close to white. This event should occur in a time frame of about 20 seconds. In espresso cups, 30 ml of coffee makes up a little less than 3/4 of a cup. This measure is called solo. If desired, a cup twice the size of a normal cup can be filled with coffee, this measure is called doppio.

(Note: The above recipe (instruction for use) is based on a commonly used semi-automatic espresso machine. The specific operating instructions of each machine must be followed. There are also manual machines that don’t have a pump and instead have a hand-operated arm, as well as fully automatic machines that take coffee as beans and give it as espresso.)


Apart from being drunk plainly today, espresso is also some of the coffees that appeal to many tastes and are prepared especially with milk. Some of these coffees are;

Americano: In a cup the size of a cappucino glass, boiling water is added to a single or double espresso until the cup is full.

Cappuccino: 1/3 of the cup is mixed with a single measure espresso and 1/3 of the steam-heated consistency milk. Thick milk foam with a volume of 1/3 of the cup is placed on them. It is garnished with cinnamon or chocolate grater.

Latte: Single or double espresso is added to a mug full of steamed viscous milk. At will, a very small amount of milk foam and sweet cream are added to it.

Mocha: Single or double espresso, steam-heated consistency milk and chocolate are blended. Coffee and chocolate flavor are presented together.

Ristretto: Half as much water is used when making espresso. In other words, it is taken from the machine before the cup is halfway through. A very strong, concentrated and delicious espresso emerges.

Lungo: Espresso made by waiting until the cup is full, not 2/3 of it. The taste becomes bitter.

Macchiato: A very small amount of milk foam is touched on a single or double espresso. It is made by adding espresso to the hot milk and the milk break. Basically, the biggest difference from all other suted coffees is that the milk is not made to the coffee, but to the coffee by adding it to the sut.

Con Panna: A layer of sweet cream is added to a single or double espresso.



Mocha – Coffee made by adding chocolate powder or sugar to the latte.


Viennese – Viennese coffee made by adding chocolate and cream to espresso. ( To be processed later in the Vienna Coffees section)


Filter Coffee – A type of coffee brewed with medium thickness that is usually filtered with the help of a paper filter.


French Press – A type of coffee prepared by mixing thick ground coffee with water at a brewing door of the same name and filtering it with a piston with a metal strainer at the end.


Cafe au lait – French filter coffee with milk. It is more than Sutu coffee. 1/3 coffee 2/3 hot put


Books about coffee

The excuse for the conversation is coffee – Deniz Gürsoy, Capricorn Yay. Istanbul 2005. (ISBN 975-329-519-7)

Kahvename – Namık Açıkgöz, Akçağ Press, Ankara 1999.

Coffeehouses in Old Istanbul – Burçak Evren, Milliyet Yay. Ist. 1994




YILDIZ, M. Cengiz, (1996), “The Place of Coffeehouses in Social Life”, Fırat University Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 157–194.

YILDIZ, M. Cengiz, (2002), “Türk Kültür Tarihi Kahve ve Kahvehane”, Türkler, Vol.10, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, 635–639.

YILDIZ, M. Cengiz, (2007), Kahvehane Kültür, Beyan Yayınları, Istanbul.

The History of Our Everyday Life, Kudret Emiroğlu, Dost Kitapevi, page 339

Basic Britanica, Coffee ingredient

History of Science and Inventions, Isaac Asimov, page 79

Akşam Newspaper, December 28, 2006 Future Trends supplement















Share This